On 22 April 1993, 18-year-old Stephen Lawrence was stabbed to death in an unprovoked racist attack by a group of white men in London.
The case was catapulted into the public eye for a number of reasons. Firstly, the shocking murder served as a horrific reminder of the racist brutality young black British teenagers can face in the UK. Secondly, because it soon emerged there had been a number of police failings. These led to a landmark report which condemned the London Metropolitan police as "institutionally racist". Thirdly, Stephen's killers long evaded punishment and conviction. And, finally, the persistent efforts of Stephen's friends and family seeking justice, most notably his mother Doreen who has since become a Baroness and sits in the House of Lords.
A new three-part BBC documentary series Stephen: The Murder That Changed A Nation is thrusting the case back into public discourse on the 25th anniversary of his death. The series, created by award-winning film makers Asif Kapadia and James Gay-Rees, goes back in time explaining how the fight for justice unfolded, featuring interviews with Stephen's family and friends, key witnesses and police.
Here's a reminder of how the long-running story unfolded:
Who was Stephen?
Stephen lived with his mother Doreen, father Neville, brother Stuart and sister Georgina in Eltham, south east London. He had dreams to become an architect and was studying A-Levels in English, Physics and Design. He loved Hip Hop and was a good athlete too.
On 22 April 1993, Stephen was walking with his best friend Duwayne Brooks. They had been playing video games together near his home in Eltham, south east London, when they were set upon by a group of five white men at a bus stop, who shouted racist abuse at the men at first.
Duwayne says he called to Stephen to run but when he looked back he was on the floor. He had been stabbed twice, once in the chest and once in the shoulder. Stephen got up and managed to run with Duwayne before collapsing on the floor. It's likely that he died there, before he was transferred to the hospital. A memorial now exists in the spot where he was killed.
The Macpherson report which looked into Lawrence's death in 1998 (more on this later) concluded: "Stephen Lawrence's murder was simply and solely and unequivocally motivated by racism. It was the deepest tragedy for his family. It was an affront to society and especially to the local black community in Greenwich."
The immediate aftermath
Just a day after the murder, a letter giving the names of suspects was left in a telephone box. There were also rumours that people in the area had passed on names of those who may have committed the crime to the police.
The Lawrences knew about this, but the police were making no arrests. Increasingly frustrated at the slow response of the police at catching the murderers, the family eventually caught the attention of the South African president and racial equality leader Nelson Mandela, who met with them on a visit to London in May 1993.
On 7 May, five suspects - brothers Neil and Jamie Acourt, David Norris, Gary Dobson and Luke Knight - were arrested by the police. Neil Acourt and Luke Knight were charged with the murder of Stephen which they denied. In July, 1993 the charges were dropped by the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS).
The fight for justice
In September, 1994, the Lawrence family began a private prosecution against the prime suspects Neil Acourt, Knight and Dobson. The case collapsed at the Old Bailey on 25 April 1996 and all three men were acquitted. At the time, this meant that those three men could never be tried again for the murder under the present state of the law.
In 1994, the police surveilled some of the key suspects and found them to be using highly offensive and aggressive racist language.
A long-awaited inquest reached a conclusion in July 1997. The five key suspects were summoned to appear at the inquiry but none of them gave any evidence on grounds of "privilege". The inquiry was also not an investigation into their guilt, but into how the police had handled things. Footage showed the men acting aggressive and being protected by police when they were greeted by angry protesters outside the inquiry.
Following the inquest, on February 14 1997 the Daily Mail published a front page with the headline: "Murderers". The article named the five suspects and accused them of killing Lawrence, publicly telling them to sue the newspaper if they were wrong.
The failures of the police
The 100,000 page report by Lord Macpherson (hence the name of the report) is now considered a huge historical landmark in British race relations after it ruled that the London Metropolitan Police, and other police services in the country, were "institutionally racist".
This means: "The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitude and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people."
The report concluded that "no police officer did anything by the way of First Aid, apart from the small amount of testing to see whether Stephen Lawrence was still breathing" after being called out to the scene in 1993. They also said "no officers early on the scene took any proper steps at once to pursue the subjects".
In the new documentary, Duwayne says he recalls the police who arrived on the night being "unhelpful" as Stephen lay there bleeding to death.
The criticism of the police only gets worse. The report revealed that it was the police force's racist bias which might have hindered justice for the murdered teenager.
The report said Doreen and Neville were "treated with insensitivity and lack of sympathy", as was Duwayne, by family liaison and police officers. It also found that the police failed to initially treat the murder as racially motivated.
In June 1998, the police apologised to the Lawrences for their failings. At this time, no one had been found guilty of Lawrence's murder.
A glimmer of justice
In September 2002, former suspects Norris and Neil Acourt were jailed for 18 months for an unrelated crime of a racist attack on an off-duty black police officer in Eltham, less than a mile from where Stephen was killed.
In April, 2005 the 'double jeopardy' law - which prevents people being tried for the same crime twice - was scrapped.
It wasn't until six years later that two of the former suspects Dobson and Norris were put on trial again for Stephen's murder following a review of forensic evidence; Stephen's DNA, in the form of blood and hair, had been found on their clothes. The men were found guilty of Stephen's murder; Dobson was jailed for a minimum of 15 years and two months while Norris was jailed for 14 years and three months.
After two of the former suspects were found guilty, Doreen said "it's the begining of starting a new life". Sadly, while there was a glimmer of justice, the other three men who Lord Macpherson said were involved in the killing have not been punished.
Matters were made worse for Doreen when it was revealed in 2013 that a former police officer had been spying on the family around the time of the murder. This led to then-Home Secretary Theresa May to call for an inquiry into undercover police tactics, which is still ongoing.
The family have continued to call out institutional racism in the police, with Stephen's brother Stuart revealing in 2013 that police have stopped him 25 times under stop and search powers, saying he has been "targeted because of the colour of [his] skin".
Doreen founded the Stephen Lawrence Charitable Trust in 1998 which aims to transform Stephen's legacy to help young, disadvantaged people forge careers. In 2013, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge visited the Trust's centre in Deptford where they were shown some of Stephen's architectural work. In 2013, Doreen was made a Life Peer in the House of Lords, a year before she carried the Olympic flag at the opening ceremony in London.
In 2017, Neville was given an honorary doctorate in law from Portsmouth University for his continual efforts to get justice for his son. He has also spent time giving talks to schools, universities and prisons. Neville - who is now divorced from Doreen - recently told the BBC he has forgiven his son's killers because of his Christian beliefs.
Duwayne has also continued to speak up by making his way into politics. He became a Liberal Democrat counsellor in 2009 and has since stood to be mayor. He will try again to be mayor of Lewisham in this year's local elections as an independent candidate. He was awarded an OBE in 2015.
Stephen was laid to rest in Jamaica. Doreen said at the time this was because "Britain didn't deserve him".
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