Typhoid is a disease that can have grave consequences. A simple vaccine injection can help in preventing this potentially fatal disease.
Typhoid (typhoid fever) is a serious infection caused by the bacteria, Salmonella typhi. It is usually spread by contaminated food or water. Some people who get the disease can spread the disease to others, and are known as ‘carriers’. These carriers can spread the germs for a long duration even after treatment.
Symptoms of the disease include high fever (up to 102°F - 104°F), headache, muscle ache, stomach pain, loss of appetite, fatigue, constipation or diarrhea, and occasionally, a characteristic rash of small pink spots over the torso of the body. If untreated, typhoid fever can even lead to death. Vaccination from typhoid can prevent it.
Types of Typhoid vaccine
There are three types of typhoid vaccines available:
- Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) – Given as an injection
- Typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Vi PS) – Given as an injection
- Ty21a – Given orally
Timing of Typhoid vaccine administration
- The Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Immunization schedule for children recommends typhoid vaccination with TCV at 9 months of age through 23 months, followed by a booster at 2 years of age when given at 9-12 months.
If a Vi PS vaccine is used, it should be given at 2 years of age and revaccination should be done every 3 years. It should not be given in children younger than 2 years of age.
- The IAP recommends TCV over Vi PS whenever feasible. If a dose is missed, catch-up vaccination is recommended throughout adolescence (up to 18 years of age).
- Ty21a is a live oral vaccine given in the form of tablets. It should not be given in children younger than 6 years of age. It is given in 4 doses every alternate day of the week (day 1, day 3, day 5 and day 7).
- Travel immunizations against typhoid is also indicated in people who are not immunized and are travelling to high risk locations. The vaccine should be administered at least 1-2 weeks before travel.
Talk to your doctor about when to give your child the typhoid vaccine.